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Title: Bioactive candy : effects of licorice on the cardiovascular system
Author(s): Deutch, Mikkel R.
Grimm, Daniela
Wehland, Markus
Infanger, ManfredLook up in the Integrated Authority File of the German National Library
Krüger, MarcusLook up in the Integrated Authority File of the German National Library
Issue Date: 2019
Type: Article
Language: English
URN: urn:nbn:de:gbv:ma9:1-1981185920-371408
Subjects: Licorice
Glycyrrhizin acid
11-Beta-dehydrogenase isozyme 2
Abstract: Licorice, today chiefly utilized as a flavoring additive in tea, tobacco and candy, is one of the oldest used herbs for medicinal purposes and consists of up to 300 active compounds. The main active constituent of licorice is the prodrug glycyrrhizin, which is successively converted to 3β-monoglucuronyl-18β-glycyrrhetinic acid (3MGA) and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) in the intestines. Despite many reported health benefits, 3MGA and GA inhibit the 11-β-hydrogenase type II enzyme (11β-HSD2) oxidizing cortisol to cortisone. Through activation of mineralocorticoid receptors, high cortisol levels induce a mild form of apparent mineralocorticoid excess in the kidney and increase systemic vascular resistance. Continuous inhibition of 11β-HSD2 related to excess licorice consumption will create a state of hypernatremia, hypokalemia and increased fluid volume, which can cause serious life-threatening complications especially in patients already suffering from cardiovascular diseases. Two recent meta-analyses of 18 and 26 studies investigating the correlation between licorice intake and blood pressure revealed statistically significant increases both in systolic (5.45 mmHg) and in diastolic blood pressure (3.19/1.74 mmHg). This review summarizes and evaluates current literature about the acute and chronic effects of licorice ingestion on the cardiovascular system with special focus on blood pressure. Starting from the molecular actions of licorice (metabolites) inside the cells, it describes how licorice intake is affecting the human body and shows the boundaries between the health benefits of licorice and possible harmful eff
Open Access: Open access publication
License: (CC BY 4.0) Creative Commons Attribution 4.0(CC BY 4.0) Creative Commons Attribution 4.0
Sponsor/Funder: DFG-Publikationsfonds 2019
Journal Title: Foods
Publisher: MDPI
Publisher Place: Basel
Volume: 8
Issue: 10
Original Publication: 10.3390/foods8100495
Page Start: 1
Page End: 20
Appears in Collections:Medizinische Fakultät (OA)

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